Data in this database are freely available under the request of citation of this paper  and the paper in which the used data were published.

The Amsterdam Light Scattering Database

 

Hester Volten*, Olga Muñoz#, Joop Hovenier*, Rens Waters*

*Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek”, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

#Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Granada, Spain

 

Last update: February 2012

 

Table of content

Aerosol particles

Hydrosol particles

Organization of the database

Amsterdam Light Scattering Database Tables

Articles and background information

Questions or comments?

 

 

Aerosol particles


In recent years a considerable amount of experimental single scattering matrices as functions of the scattering angle have been obtained with the light scattering facility in Amsterdam, for samples of randomly oriented small mineral particles in air (aerosol particles) with broad ranges of sizes and shapes. From these data, it has become clear that particle shape is highly important in determining the overall light scattering behavior of these samples.

To provide an incentive for the use of our data in further research and applications, we have decided to make our experimental data more easily available by storing our data in digital form in this database. All data have been previously published in scientific journals. The database contains the following data for several samples of mineral aerosol particles in random orientation:

1. Tables of scattering matrix elements as functions of the scattering angle from at most 3 to 174 degrees at two wavelengths, 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm.
2. Tables of size distributions as measured with a laser diffraction method.
3. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of the particles that are indicative of their shape characteristics.
4. Information about the origin, color, composition and/or the complex refractive index of the samples, when available.

Information on the accuracy of the data is provided, whenever possible.
We intend to update this database regularly with new measured scattering matrix results.

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Hydrosol particles

Scattering data for hydrosol particles are also available in the database: 15 types of phytoplankton and two types of mineral particles. The information for these particles is more limited than for the aerosol particles. The database contains the following data for several samples of hydrosol particles in random orientation:

1. Tables of the scattering function and the degree of linear polarization for incident unpolarized light, as functions of the scattering angle from 20 to 160 degrees at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.
2. Information or estimates pertaining to the name, classification, size, shape, and complex refractive index of the samples, when available.

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Organization of the database

 

In the tables below you find the light scattering database. In the left column the various samples are listed. They are linked to a "Fact and Figures" page, where you can find information about the samples, e.g., about their composition, refractive index, etc. In addition, figures of scattering matrix elements and size distributions can be found there. The scattering matrix element data are given in a tabular form, through links in adjacent columns for measurements using red light (632.8 nm), and, whenever available, for measurements using blue light (441.6 nm). Also links to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images or Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images and tables of the size distributions are provided, when available. We note that the laser diffraction size distributions were obtained without assumptions about the refractive indices of the materials of the particles.

Click here for:

general information about the composition and refractive index,

general information about the aerosol SEM images,

the definition of the scattering matrix,

an explanation of the normalization of the scattering matrix,

an extensive explanation of the size distributions.

In addition to data for individual samples, we also provide average scattering matrices composed of combined data, and synthetic matrices that cover a complete scattering angle range from 0 to 180 degrees.

Lastly, we would like to remark the following:
1. When we refer to log r, r refers to radii of projected-surface equivalent spheres and is always expressed in micrometers.
2. For refractive indices, we use m=n-ik, with n,k larger or equal to 0 (Van de Hulst, 1957,"Light scattering by small particles", Wiley, NewYork).
3. Different conventions are used for Stokes parameters and, consequently, for (the sign of) F34/F11 . We always use the convention following Van de Hulst, 1957 (see Hovenier and Van der Mee, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 128, 1-16, 1983, and the book Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres, Basic Concepts and Practical Methods, by J.W. Hovenier, C. van de Mee, and H. Domke, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2004).
4. The values of all aerosol scattering functions F11 have been normalized to 1 at a scattering angle of 30 degrees. The values of all hydrosol scattering functions F11 have been normalized to 0.00841 (San Diego Harbor water) at a scattering angle of 90 degrees.


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Amsterdam Light Scattering Database Tables

 

AEROSOL PARTICLES

FACTS AND
FIGURES

SCATTERING
DATA, 632.8nm

SCATTERING
DATA, 441.6nm

SEM IMAGES

SIZE DISTRIBUTION
TABLES

Feldspar

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1     image 2

size distribution

Red Clay

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1     image 2

size distribution

Quartz

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1     image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Pinatubo)

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1     image 2

size distribution

Loess

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1      image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Lokon)

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1      image 2

size distribution

Sahara

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image 1     image 2

size distribution

Allende

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Olivine S

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Olivine M

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Olivine L

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Olivine XL

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Green clay

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Fly ash

matrix 632.8 nm

matrix 441.6 nm

image

size distribution

Volcanic ash (El Chichon

2 elements, 632.8 nm

 

 

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Mnt St. Helens)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2 image 3

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Redoubt A)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Redoubt B)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Spurr Ashton)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Spurr Anchorage)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Spurr Gunsight)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2 image 3

size distribution

Volcanic ash (Spurr Stop 33)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image 1 image 2

size distribution

Hematite

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image

size distribution

Rutile

matrix 632.8 nm

 

TEM image

 

Forsterite initial

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image

size distribution

Forsterite small

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image

size distribution

Forsterite washed

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image

size distribution

Martian analog (palagonite)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image

size distribution

Sahara sand (Libya)

matrix 632.8 nm

 

image, optical image

size distribution

 

Average Matrices and Synthetic matrices

Average Aerosol Scattering Matrix

average at 632.8nm and 441.6 nm combined

Synthetic Average Volcanic Scattering Matrix

synthetic matrix at 632.8 nm

size distribution

Synthetic Matrix Sahara sand (Libya)

synthetic matrix at 632.8 nm

size distribution


Synthetic Matrix Martian analog (palagonite)
synthetic matrix at 632.8 nmcorresponding expansion coefficients

 

 

 

Test particles

water droplets

matrix 632.8nm

matrix 441.6nm

 

COSMIC DUST ANALOGS FLUFFY AGGREGATES

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 1

F11, -F12/F11, and F22/F11 at  632.8nm

TEM image 1 TEM image 2 SEM image

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 2

F11,  -F12/F11, and F22/F11 at  632.8nm

TEM image 1 TEM image 2

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 3

F11,  -F12/F11, and F22/F11 at  632.8nm

TEM image 1 TEM image 2 SEM image

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 4

F11, -F12/F11, and F22/F11 at  632.8nm

TEM image 1 TEM image 2

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 5

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

 

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 6

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

 

Aggregates (fluffy) Sample 7

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

TEM image

 

HYDROSOL PARTICLES

Microcystis aeruginosa, no gas vacuoles

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Microcystis aeruginosa, with gas vacuoles

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Microcystis sp.

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Phaeocystis

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Volvox aureus

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Prochlorothrix hollandica

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Oscillatoria amoena

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Oscillatoria agardhii

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Melosira granulata

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Anabaena flos aquae

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Astrionella formosa

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Selenastrum capricornutum

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Phaeodactylum

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Emiliania huxleyi, with coccoliths

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Emiliania huxleyi, no coccoliths

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Westerschelde silt, 3-5 micrometers

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

Westerschelde silt, 5-12 micrometers

F11 and -F12/F11 at  632.8nm

 

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Articles and background information

 

The articles below are posted with permission from their publishers. Single copies of an article can be downloaded and printed only for the reader's personal research and study.

§         The aerosol data in this database have been published in these articles.

§         The hydrosol data in this database have been published in this article.

§         More information about the database can be found in these articles.

§         More information about the experimental setup can be found here.

§         Pictures of the experimental setup, and more.

§         Links to other interesting light scattering websites and databases.

 

 

Questions or comments?

We welcome all feedback!
Hester and Olga
Please e-mail Hester and Olga.

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