H α and Hea i absorption in HAT-P-32 b observed with CARMENES: Detection of Roche lobe overflow and mass loss

DOI: 
10.1051/0004-6361/202039919
Publication date: 
01/01/2022
Main author: 
Czesla S.
IAA authors: 
Lampón, M.;López-Puertas, M.;Aceituno, J.;Amado, P. J.
Authors: 
Czesla, S.;Lampón, M.;Sanz-Forcada, J.;García Muñoz, A.;López-Puertas, M.;Nortmann, L.;Yan, D.;Nagel, E.;Yan, F.;Schmitt, J. H.M.M.;Aceituno, J.;Amado, P. J.;Caballero, J. A.;Casasayas-Barris, N.;Henning, Th;Khalafinejad, S.;Molaverdikhani, K.;Montes, D.;Pallé, E.;Reiners, A.;Schneider, P. C.;Ribas, I.;Quirrenbach, A.;Zapatero Osorio, M. R.;Zechmeister, M.
Journal: 
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Volume: 
657.0
Pages: 
A6
Number: 
A6
Abstract: 
We analyze two high-resolution spectral transit time series of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b obtained with the CARMENES spectrograph. Our new XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the system show that the fast-rotating F-type host star exhibits a high X-ray luminosity of 2.3 × 10 29 erg s -1 (5-100 Å), corresponding to a flux of 6.9 × 10 4 erg cm -2 s -1 at the planetary orbit, which results in an energy-limited escape estimate of about 10 13 g s -1 for the planetary mass-loss rate. The spectral time series show significant, time-dependent absorption in the Hα and Hea Iλ10833 triplet lines with maximum depths of about 3.3% and 5.3%. The mid-transit absorption signals in the Hα and Hea Iλ10833 lines are consistent with results from one-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, which also yields mass-loss rates on the order of 10 13 g s -1. We observe an early ingress of a redshifted component of the transmission signal, which extends into a redshifted absorption component, persisting until about the middle of the optical transit. While a super-rotating wind can explain redshifted ingress absorption, we find that an up-orbit stream, transporting planetary mass in the direction of the star, also provides a plausible explanation for the pre-transit signal. This makes HAT-P-32 a benchmark system for exploring atmospheric dynamics via transmission spectroscopy.
Database: 
SCOPUS
ADS
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2022A&A...657A...6C/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2022A&A...657A...6C
Keywords: 
Planets and satellites: atmospheres | Planets and satellites: individual: HAT-P-32 | Techniques: spectroscopic | X-rays: stars