IMK/IAA MIPAS temperature retrieval version 8: nominal measurements

Publication date: 
Main author: 
Kiefer, Michael
IAA authors: 
Funke, Bernd;García-Comas, Maya;López-Puertas, Manuel
Kiefer, Michael;von Clarmann, Thomas;Funke, Bernd;García-Comas, Maya;Glatthor, Norbert;Grabowski, Udo;Kellmann, Sylvia;Kleinert, Anne;Laeng, Alexandra;Linden, Andrea;López-Puertas, Manuel;Marsh, Daniel R.;Stiller, Gabriele P.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Publication type: 
A new global set of atmospheric temperature profiles is retrieved from recalibrated radiance spectra recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). Changes with respect to previous data versions include a new radiometric calibration considering the time dependency of the detector nonlinearity and a more robust frequency calibration scheme. Temperature is retrieved using a smoothing constraint, while tangent altitude pointing information is constrained using optimal estimation. ECMWF ERA-Interim is used as a priori temperature below 43 km. Above, a priori data are based on data from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model Version 4 (WACCM4). Bias-corrected fields from specified dynamics runs, sampled at the MIPAS times and locations, are used, blended with ERA-Interim between 43 and 53 km. Horizontal variability of temperature is considered by scaling an a priori 3D temperature field in the orbit plane in a way that the horizontal structure is provided by the a priori while the vertical structure comes from the measurements. Additional microwindows with better sensitivity at higher altitudes are used. The background continuum is jointly fitted with the target parameters up to 58 km altitude. The radiance offset correction is strongly regularized towards an empirically determined vertical offset profile. In order to avoid the propagation of uncertainties of O<SUB>3</SUB> and H<SUB>2</SUB>O a priori assumptions, the abundances of these species are retrieved jointly with temperature. The retrieval is based on HITRAN 2016 spectroscopic data, with a few amendments. Temperature-adjusted climatologies of vibrational populations of CO<SUB>2</SUB> states emitting in the 15 µm region are used in the radiative transfer modeling in order to account for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical integration in the radiative transfer model is now performed at higher accuracy. The random component of the temperature uncertainty typically varies between 0.4 and 1 K, with occasional excursions up to 1.3 K above 60 km altitude. The leading sources of the random component of the temperature error are measurement noise, gain calibration uncertainty, spectral shift, and uncertain CO<SUB>2</SUB> mixing ratios. The systematic error is caused by uncertainties in spectroscopic data and line shape uncertainties. It ranges from 0.2 K at 20 km altitude for northern midlatitude summer conditions to 2.3 K at 12 km for tropical conditions. The estimated total uncertainty amounts to values between 0.6 K at 20 km for midlatitude summer conditions to 2.5 K at 12-15 km for tropical conditions. The vertical resolution varies around 3 km for altitudes below 50 km. The long-term drift encountered in the previous temperature product has been largely reduced. The consistency between high spectral resolution results from 2002 to 2004 and the reduced spectral resolution results from 2005 to 2012 has been largely improved. As expected, most pronounced temperature differences between version 8 and previous data versions are found in elevated stratopause situations. The fact that the phase of temperature waves seen by MIPAS is not locked to the wave phase found in ECMWF analyses demonstrates that our retrieval provides independent information and does not merely reproduce the prior information.
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