First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Testing Astrophysical Models of the Galactic Center Black Hole

DOI: 
10.3847/2041-8213/ac6672
Publication date: 
08/05/2022
Main author: 
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
IAA authors: 
Alberdi, Antxon;Cho, Ilje;Fuentes, Antonio;Gómez, José L.;Lico, Rocco;Traianou, Efthalia;Zhao, Guang-Yao
Authors: 
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration;Akiyama, Kazunori;Alberdi, Antxon;Alef, Walter;Algaba, Juan Carlos;Anantua, Richard;Asada, Keiichi;Azulay, Rebecca;Bach, Uwe;Baczko, Anne-Kathrin;Ball, David;Baloković, Mislav;Barrett, John;Bauböck, Michi;Benson, Bradford A.;Bintley, Dan;Blackburn, Lindy;Blundell, Raymond;Bouman, Katherine L.;Bower, Geoffrey C.;Boyce, Hope;Bremer, Michael;Brinkerink, Christiaan D.;Brissenden, Roger;Britzen, Silke;Broderick, Avery E.;Broguiere, Dominique;Bronzwaer, Thomas;Bustamante, Sandra;Byun, Do-Young;Carlstrom, John E.;Ceccobello, Chiara;Chael, Andrew;Chan, Chi-kwan;Chatterjee, Koushik;Chatterjee, Shami;Chen, Ming-Tang;Chen, Yongjun;Cheng, Xiaopeng;Cho, Ilje;Christian, Pierre;Conroy, Nicholas S.;Conway, John E.;Cordes, James M.;Crawford, Thomas M.;Crew, Geoffrey B.;Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro;Cui, Yuzhu;Davelaar, Jordy;De Laurentis, Mariafelicia;Deane, Roger;Dempsey, Jessica;Desvignes, Gregory;Dexter, Jason;Dhruv, Vedant;Doeleman, Sheperd S.;Dougal, Sean;Dzib, Sergio A.;Eatough, Ralph P.;Emami, Razieh;Falcke, Heino;Farah, Joseph;Fish, Vincent L.;Fomalont, Ed;Ford, H. Alyson;Fraga-Encinas, Raquel;Freeman, William T.;Friberg, Per;Fromm, Christian M.;Fuentes, Antonio;Galison, Peter;Gammie, Charles F.;García, Roberto;Gentaz, Olivier;Georgiev, Boris;Goddi, Ciriaco;Gold, Roman;Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.;Gómez, José L.;Gu, Minfeng;Gurwell, Mark;Hada, Kazuhiro;Haggard, Daryl;Haworth, Kari;Hecht, Michael H.;Hesper, Ronald;Heumann, Dirk;Ho, Luis C.;Ho, Paul;Honma, Mareki;Huang, Chih-Wei L.;Huang, Lei;Hughes, David H.;Ikeda, Shiro;Violette Impellizzeri, C. M.;Inoue, Makoto;Issaoun, Sara;James, David J.;Jannuzi, Buell T.;Janssen, Michael;Jeter, Britton;Jiang, Wu;Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra;Johnson, Michael D.;Jorstad, Svetlana;Joshi, Abhishek V.;Jung, Taehyun;Karami, Mansour;Karuppusamy, Ramesh;Kawashima, Tomohisa;Keating, Garrett K.;Kettenis, Mark;Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Jae-Young;Kim, Jongsoo;Kim, Junhan;Kino, Motoki;Koay, Jun Yi;Kocherlakota, Prashant;Kofuji, Yutaro;Koch, Patrick M.;Koyama, Shoko;Kramer, Carsten;Kramer, Michael;Krichbaum, Thomas P.;Kuo, Cheng-Yu;Bella, Noemi La;Lauer, Tod R.;Lee, Daeyoung;Lee, Sang-Sung;Leung, Po Kin;Levis, Aviad;Li, Zhiyuan;Lico, Rocco;Lindahl, Greg;Lindqvist, Michael;Lisakov, Mikhail;Liu, Jun;Liu, Kuo;Liuzzo, Elisabetta;Lo, Wen-Ping;Lobanov, Andrei P.;Loinard, Laurent;Lonsdale, Colin J.;Lu, Ru-Sen;Mao, Jirong;Marchili, Nicola;Markoff, Sera;Marrone, Daniel P.;Marscher, Alan P.;Martí-Vidal, Iván;Matsushita, Satoki;Matthews, Lynn D.;Medeiros, Lia;Menten, Karl M.;Michalik, Daniel;Mizuno, Izumi;Mizuno, Yosuke;Moran, James M.;Moriyama, Kotaro;Moscibrodzka, Monika;Müller, Cornelia;Mus, Alejandro;Musoke, Gibwa;Myserlis, Ioannis;Nadolski, Andrew;Nagai, Hiroshi;Nagar, Neil M.;Nakamura, Masanori;Narayan, Ramesh;Narayanan, Gopal;Natarajan, Iniyan;Nathanail, Antonios;Navarro Fuentes, Santiago;Neilsen, Joey;Neri, Roberto;Ni, Chunchong;Noutsos, Aristeidis;Nowak, Michael A.;Oh, Junghwan;Okino, Hiroki;Olivares, Héctor;Ortiz-León, Gisela N.;Oyama, Tomoaki;Özel, Feryal;Palumbo, Daniel C. M.;Filippos Paraschos, Georgios;Park, Jongho;Parsons, Harriet;Patel, Nimesh;Pen, Ue-Li;Pesce, Dominic W.;Piétu, Vincent;Plambeck, Richard;PopStefanija, Aleksandar;Porth, Oliver;Pötzl, Felix M.;Prather, Ben;Preciado-López, Jorge A.;Psaltis, Dimitrios;Pu, Hung-Yi;Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh;Rao, Ramprasad;Rawlings, Mark G.;Raymond, Alexander W.;Rezzolla, Luciano;Ricarte, Angelo;Ripperda, Bart;Roelofs, Freek;Rogers, Alan;Ros, Eduardo;Romero-Cañizales, Cristina;Roshanineshat, Arash;Rottmann, Helge;Roy, Alan L.;Ruiz, Ignacio;Ruszczyk, Chet;Rygl, Kazi L. J.;Sánchez, Salvador;Sánchez-Argüelles, David;Sánchez-Portal, Miguel;Sasada, Mahito;Satapathy, Kaushik;Savolainen, Tuomas;Schloerb, F. Peter;Schonfeld, Jonathan;Schuster, Karl-Friedrich;Shao, Lijing;Shen, Zhiqiang;Small, Des;Sohn, Bong Won;SooHoo, Jason;Souccar, Kamal;Sun, He;Tazaki, Fumie;Tetarenko, Alexandra J.;Tiede, Paul;Tilanus, Remo P. J.;Titus, Michael;Torne, Pablo;Traianou, Efthalia;Trent, Tyler;Trippe, Sascha;Turk, Matthew;van Bemmel, Ilse;van Langevelde, Huib Jan;van Rossum, Daniel R.;Vos, Jesse;Wagner, Jan;Ward-Thompson, Derek;Wardle, John;Weintroub, Jonathan;Wex, Norbert;Wharton, Robert;Wielgus, Maciek;Wiik, Kaj;Witzel, Gunther;Wondrak, Michael F.;Wong, George N.;Wu, Qingwen;Yamaguchi, Paul;Yoon, Doosoo;Young, André;Young, Ken;Younsi, Ziri;Yuan, Feng;Yuan, Ye-Fei;Zensus, J. Anton;Zhang, Shuo;Zhao, Guang-Yao;Zhao, Shan-Shan;Chan, Tin Lok;Qiu, Richard;Ressler, Sean;White, Chris
Journal: 
The Astrophysical Journal
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Volume: 
930
Pages: 
L16
Abstract: 
In this paper we provide a first physical interpretation for the Event Horizon Telescope's (EHT) 2017 observations of Sgr A*. Our main approach is to compare resolved EHT data at 230 GHz and unresolved non-EHT observations from radio to X-ray wavelengths to predictions from a library of models based on time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including aligned, tilted, and stellar-wind-fed simulations; radiative transfer is performed assuming both thermal and nonthermal electron distribution functions. We test the models against 11 constraints drawn from EHT 230 GHz data and observations at 86 GHz, 2.2 μm, and in the X-ray. All models fail at least one constraint. Light-curve variability provides a particularly severe constraint, failing nearly all strongly magnetized (magnetically arrested disk (MAD)) models and a large fraction of weakly magnetized models. A number of models fail only the variability constraints. We identify a promising cluster of these models, which are MAD and have inclination i ≤ 30°. They have accretion rate (5.2-9.5) × 10<SUP>-9</SUP> M <SUB>⊙</SUB> yr<SUP>-1</SUP>, bolometric luminosity (6.8-9.2) × 10<SUP>35</SUP> erg s<SUP>-1</SUP>, and outflow power (1.3-4.8) × 10<SUP>38</SUP> erg s<SUP>-1</SUP>. We also find that all models with i ≥ 70° fail at least two constraints, as do all models with equal ion and electron temperature; exploratory, nonthermal model sets tend to have higher 2.2 μm flux density; and the population of cold electrons is limited by X-ray constraints due to the risk of bremsstrahlung overproduction. Finally, we discuss physical and numerical limitations of the models, highlighting the possible importance of kinetic effects and duration of the simulations.
Database: 
ADS
SCOPUS
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2022ApJ...930L..16E/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2022ApJ...930L..16E
Keywords: 
Black hole physics;Galactic center;159;565