Planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet-type central stars - IV. NGC 1501 and its mixing layer

DOI: 
10.1093/mnras/stac3011
Publication date: 
08/10/2022
Main author: 
Rubio, G.
IAA authors: 
Guerrero, M. A.
Authors: 
Rubio, G.;Toalá, J. A.;Todt, H.;Sabin, L.;Santamaría, E.;Ramos-Larios, G.;Guerrero, M. A.
Journal: 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Refereed: 
Yes
Publication type: 
Article
Pages: 
5166
Abstract: 
Theory predicts that the temperature of the X-ray-emitting gas (~10<SUP>6</SUP> K) detected from planetary nebulae (PNe) is a consequence of mixing or thermal conduction when in contact with the ionized outer rim (~10<SUP>4</SUP> K). Gas at intermediate temperatures (~10<SUP>5</SUP> K) can be used to study the physics of the production of X-ray-emitting gas, via C IV, N V and O VI ions. Here we model the stellar atmosphere of the CSPN of NGC 1501 to demonstrate that even this hot H-deficient [WO4]-type star cannot produce these emission lines by photoionization. We use the detection of the C IV lines to assess the physical properties of the mixing region in this PNe in comparison with its X-ray-emitting gas, rendering NGC 1501 only the second PNe with such characterization. We extend our predictions to the hottest [WO1] and cooler [WC5] spectral types and demonstrate that most energetic photons are absorbed in the dense winds of [WR] CSPN and highly ionized species can be used to study the physics behind the production of hot bubbles in PNe. We found that the UV observations of NGC 2452, NGC 6751 and NGC 6905 are consistent with the presence mixing layers and hot bubbles, providing excellent candidates for future X-ray observations.
Database: 
ADS
URL: 
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2022MNRAS.517.5166R/abstract
ADS Bibcode: 
2022MNRAS.517.5166R
Keywords: 
stars: evolution;stars: winds;outflows;stars: Wolf-Rayet;stars: individual: WD 0402+607;(ISM:) planetary nebulae: general;(ISM:) planetary nebulae: individual: NGC 1501;Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics;Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies;Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena